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SECOND DIVISION
[ G.R. No. 208480, September 25, 2019 ]
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, PETITIONER, VS. NATIONAL
COMMISSION ON INDIGENOUS PEOPLES, REGISTER OF DEEDS
OF BAGUIO CITY, LAND REGISTRATION AUTHORITY, HEIRS OF
COSEN PIRASO, REPRESENTED BY RICHARD A. ACOP, HEIRS OF
JOSEPHINE MOLINTAS ABANAG, REPRESENTED BY ISAIAS M.
ABANAG, MARION T. POOL, JOAN L. GORIO, AND VIRGINIA C.
GAO-AN, RESPONDENTS.
DECISION
CARPIO, ACTING C.J.:
The Case
Before this Court is a Petition for Review[1] under Rule 45 of the Rules of Court
assailing the Decision[2] and Resolution[3] of the Court of Appeals in CA-G.R. SP No.
126498 dated 15 January 2013 and22 July 2013, respectively. The Decision
dismissed the Petition for Certiorari, Prohibition and Mandamus with Prayer for the
Issuance of a Temporary Restraining Order and/or Writ of Preliminary Injunction filed
by petitioner Republic of the Philippines (Republic) against public respondent
National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP). The NCIP issued Certificates of
Ancestral Land Title (CALTs) in favor of private respondents, the heirs of Cosen
Piraso (Pirasos) and private respondents, the heirs of Josephine Molintas Abanag
(Abanags) through Resolution Nos. 107-2010-AL[4] and 108-2010-AL,[5] both dated
10 November 2010. Subsequently, public respondent Land Registration Auhority
(LRA) issued the corresponding Transfer Certificates of Title (TCTs) covering the said
properties.[6]
The Antecedent Facts
Below are the facts of the case according to the Decision[7] of the Court of Appeals:
In Resolution No. 107-2010-AL, the petitioners are the heirs of Co[s]en
"Sarah" Piraso, the daughter of Piraso, otherwise known as Kapitan
Piraso, an Ibaloi, who occupied an ancestral land located at what is known
as Session Road, Baguio City. Aside from having five (5) children, Kapitan
Piraso also adopted, in accordance with the Ibaloi tradition, a son in the
name of Nimer. Nimer and his family, in turn, [have] been planting and
harvesting vegetables and fruit-bearing trees on several portions of the

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